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To be able to find, we must find two of the three currents:, and. 10 7. 3 mA. 1. The current following into the lower 1-k resistor is exactly equal to ; why? 3. See solution for Exercise questions E, E, E and Problems P(b) and P CHAPTER 13 Exercises E Figure Examples of linear and nonlinear operation of an inverting amplifier. ( the triangle symbol). [5] cutoff is generally known as the linear region of the transistor’s operation. The | Page. Solution: Figure For Example 2.

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Views Read Edit View history. Placing a capacitor in parallel with each input resistor decreases the time needed for a driving stage to forward-bias a driven stage’s base-emitter junction.

Resistor–transistor logic – Wikipedia

Post Your Answer Discard By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you acknowledge that you have read our updated terms of serviceprivacy policy and cookie policyand that your continued use of the website is subject to these policies. This page was last edited on 18 Julyat Sign up using Facebook. GE Transistor Manual third through seventh editions ed. The disadvantage of RTL is its high power dissipation when the transistor is switched on, by current flowing in the collector and base resistors.

Another limitation of RTL is its limited fan-in: Retrieved from ” https: Using a high collector supply voltage and diode clamping decreased collector-base and wiring capacitance charging time. I can only think of writing the current laws, but it doesn’t seem to get me anywhere to where I can write the ratio.

Resistor–transistor logic

Because the transistor went less deeply into saturation, the transistor accumulated fewer stored charge carriers. RTL circuits were first constructed with discrete componentsbut in it became the first digital logic family to be produced as a monolithic integrated circuit.


This filtype required diode exercisrs the collector to the design logic level. Post as a guest Name. This requires that more current be supplied to and heat be removed from RTL circuits. Integrated circuits Logic families Apollo program hardware. The base resistances and the number of the inputs are chosen limited so that only one logical “1” is sufficient to create base-emitter voltage exceeding the threshold and, as a result, saturating the transistor.

How does a current mirror work? Another method that was familiar in discrete-device logic circuits used a diode and a resistor, a germanium and a silicon diode, or three diodes in a negative feedback arrangement. The equivalent resistance of exegcises the resistors connected to logical “1” and the equivalent resistance of all the resistors connected to logical “0” solktions the two legs of a composed voltage divider driving the transistor. The Life Story of a Technology.

Resistor—transistor logic RTL sometimes also transistor—resistor logic TRL is a class of digital circuits built using resistors as the input network and bipolar junction transistors BJTs as switching devices.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Therefore, less time was required to clear stored charge during transistor turn off. The output is inverted since the collector-emitter voltage of transistor Q 1 is taken as output, and is high when the inputs are low. RTL is the earliest class of transistorized digital logic circuit used; other classes include diode—transistor logic DTL and transistor—transistor logic TTL.

This method was also applied to discrete DTL diode—transistor logic. The logical operation OR is performed by applying consecutively the two arithmetic operations addition and comparison the input resistor network acts as a parallel voltage summer with equally weighted inputs and the following common-emitter transistor stage as a voltage comparator with a threshold about 0.

In this configuration, the inputs are completely separated and the number of inputs is limited only by the small leakage current of the cut-off transistors at output logical “1”. Thus, the analog resistive network and the analog transistor stage perform the logic function NOR. Reflect the same in your small signal model.


In other projects Wikimedia Commons. These diode networks known as various Baker clamps reduced the voltage applied to the base as the collector approached saturation. The Digital Logic Handbook.

By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. Transistor switching speed has increased steadily from the first transistorized computers through the present. Then the voltage controlling the right controlled current source will be the voltage across the left source.

The role of the base resistor is to expand the very small transistor input voltage range about 0. Email Required, but never shown.

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you acknowledge that you have read our updated terms of serviceprivacy policy and cookie policyand that your continued use of the website is subject to these policies. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered.

The role of the collector resistor is to convert witb collector current into voltage; its resistance is chosen high enough to saturate the transistor and low enough to obtain low output resistance high fan-out. If all the input voltages are low logical “0”the transistor is cut-off.

The pull-down resistor R 1 biases the transistor to the appropriate on-off threshold. Early IC logic production such as Fairchild’s in used the same approach briefly, but quickly transitioned to higher-performance circuits such as diode—transistor logic and then transistor—transistor exsrcises starting at Sylvaniasince diodes and transistors were no more expensive than resistors in the IC.