Cancioneiro de Viola Caipira – Vol. 1. Edition: 1. Book condition: Good. Book Description. IRMAOS VITALE, 1. Paperback. Good. E foi em um final de ano, que Tonico e Tinoco partiram de São Paulo para a Cidade de de boas mensagens que se enraizaram em nosso cancioneiro nacional. .. Nesta semana recebi a notícia que a Orquestra de Viola de Guarulhos está.
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The singing guitar, yo. Viola Brazilian five-course guitar is an instrument that was brought to Brazil by the first people, pioneers and Jesuits. It was used as a tool for the cathequesis. This instrument was transformed correspondently with the new land’s development at the hands of bandeirantes pathfinderstropeiros responsible cancioneior the transport of goods on donkeys and popular singers.
Along with the configuration of the popular culture in Brazil, viola became the speaker of the people of some regions, such as the south-east. This article deals a little d its origin and its relations with the Brazilian people throughout the years. Brazilian five-course guitar, Brazilian music, Popular culture, Brazil’s history. Viola caipiraviola sertanejaviola de dez cordasviola caboclaviola de arameviola nordestinaviola de repenteviola brasileira are some of the names we find to describe this instrument that has gradually become one of the voices of Brazil’s backlands.
Despite all these very typical attributes that reinforce its ‘Brazilianness’ character, the viola is in fact an instrument of Portuguese origin, and so old that its sounds are lost in time.
Looking at the acoustic guitar, an instrument of the same family and ancestry as the plucked string instruments enables us to establish some parameters that will show us what this viola we are talking about actually is.
The guitar has six strings, the viola usually has ten, often grouped into pairs, 1 but the number of strings can vary from five to fifteen in a single instrument. The guitar, as we know, dates back about years; the ancestor of the viola, in turn, is close to eight hundred years old.
Although it refers to the rural world, the viola has an urban past, both in Portugal and in Brazil. To better understand the environment in which the viola was gestated, it is important that we go back in time. Iberia has been, since ancient times, the stage of invasions and intertwining of the most different ethnicities.
Cancioneiro de Viola Caipira – Vol. 1
In the Middle Ages the Arabs experienced the most exuberant period of their culture. Caipia of philosophy and related studies, they were responsible for the survival of works written in the period that preceded them, known to us as Classical Age, when many libraries were scattered in their domains.
Also caipirs of poetry and the sounds of speech, 3 the Arabs introduced the rhyme in the Western world, since Latin poetry had only the metrical structure.
Assimilated in Portugal through the close interaction between Christians and Moors over centuries, they reached us through Portuguese settlers. Let us go back to the viola. When the Arabs arrived in the Iberian Peninsula in the yearthe plucked string instruments existing in the Peninsula were the Celtic harps and the Greek-Roman cithara. Curiously, the viola keeps as a basic characteristic of its old ancestor the five orders of strings.
Cancioneiro de viola caipira – Rui Torneze – Google Books
The Arabic lute has five unison pairs, and sometimes a bass-string is placed below the highest strings to facilitate the responses between low and high notes in the melody. The viola, in turn, regardless of the number of strings, which range between five and fifteen, always maintains the idea of the five courses, which can be single, double, triple or even mixed.
Many instruments came out of the cultural link between Moors, Christians and Sephardic Jews. The merger that took place during that period in the Iberian Peninsula was such that around the thirteenth century the Latin guitar was brought into the Iberian Peninsula. About this instrument, Veiga Oliveirap. In any case, in the thirteenth century the Latin guitar represented the essential form of Vihuela or sixteenth century guitar, which would understandably be its direct extension.
And our current viola, which is essentially the same as the sixteenth century viola, would thus have as it prototype and distant ancestor the Latin guitar or the Archpriest of Hita, i. The Latin guitar went through many changes before it became the viola. Our violas are descendants of the Portuguese hand violas. Their golden period coincides with the great discoveries of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
Once again quoting Veiga Oliveirap. In Portugal, back in the fifteenth century and especially from the sixteenth century onward, the instrument under the current name of viola is widespread by the people, at least in the western zones. Not to mention the troubadour violas, we refer to the petition submitted by the prosecutors of Ponte de Lima to the courts of Lisbon in to the king D. Philipe de Caverel in his embassy’s report to Lisbon in mentions the ten thousand guiterres – which seems to be undoubtedly to be violas – which apparently accompanied the Portuguese in their journey to Alcazarquivir, and that would have been found in the spoils of D.
The presence of the Arabs and their instruments in the Iberian Peninsula led the place to become one of the great cradles of plucked string instruments on the planet. The Arabic lute and the Latin guitar are the ancestors of the vihuelas in Spain and the hand violas in Portugal. In Spain, along with the vihuelas came the Moorish guitar and the baroque guitar, the treble 9 and closer to us in time, the acoustic guitar.
In Portugal there was also a proliferation of chordophones: Each region created its own viola.
They varied in size, shape and number of strings, cancipneiro in most cases had a common feature: It was in Brazil, however, that the viola expressed its musical and morphological ubiquity. The model of the old violas from Queluz, today Conselheiro Lafaiete state of Minas Geraiswith its marquetry inlays, is still found in northern Cancionfiro, sometimes with its original twelve strings three double cipira two triple xancioneiro.
The violas from Queluz enjoyed great popularity until the early decades of the twentieth century. The number of manufacturers in the city at that time was remarkable. In the Northeast the poet-improvisers repentistas used the dynamic viola, a model created in Brazil that has natural amplifiers made with aluminum cones and, therefore, with a slightly modified pitch. These violas usually have twelve strings divided into five courses – three pairs and two triples.
In the interior of Brazil we can find violas made of bamboo, palms such as Buriti, tin cans and, finally, a neck attached to a sounding board. There is no excuse for the absence of music in rites celebrating life, whether profane or sacred. When the viola was brought to Brazil at the beginning of the colonization dr, it enjoyed huge popularity in Portugal. A significant share of the Portuguese Renaissance musical production was intended for the viola. It was also a popular instrument among ordinary people.
Gil Vicente refers to the viola as an instrument of squires.
Cancioneiro De Viola Caipira – Vol. 1 – Used Books
Little is known about the use of the viola in sixteenth century Brazil. He realized that the indigenous peoples with whom he made contact used music as a communication channel with the sacred world. Anchieta learned Tupi-Guarani and brought it into a pattern of Latin grammatical structure by adding Spanish and Portuguese ciapira to the missing words in the language.
This language was named nheeng’atu. Together with the violas, the Portuguese also played the flute, pennywhistle, drums and shepherd’s pipe, to which they added the maraca, the trumpet and indigenous flutes. The viola has since been part of the everyday life of the people that was being formed here.
Boca do Inferno Hell’s Mouth. After that he chose to tread his own path as a lawyer and went on to produce a major part of his work, which incidentally is scarcely registered, where he uses his poems, sometimes feral and others licentious, to report political scandals and everyday events in Salvador.
The world “of sugar mills, friends, lundum TNgames and mulatto women is narrated using a gourd viola which, according to tradition, was made by him The moralist Nuno Marques Pereira had no doubt that most of the evils afflicting the Portuguese colony in America in the early eighteenth century were due to the proliferation of caupira songs played by the violists of that time 18 [ A large part consisted of ballads and poems that were more appropriate to be sent into music.
We can hardly tell how much the viola was present people’s daily life, but its function as an accompanying instrument came from Portugal. In the last quarter of the eighteenth century something that was already being gestated within Brazilian society was successfully taken by a priest to the Portuguese Court.
Domingos Caldas Barbosa, with his singing accompanied by a guitar, charmed the Portuguese Court with modinhas ditties and lundumssome of them written by the priest himself. These two genera are said to be the very roots of Brazilian urban popular music: It is curious to notice that the modinhasof courtesan origin, were, at that time, accompanied by the viola, a popular instrument, and the lundum cipira, of popular origin, was played on the piano.
We notice here an interweaving of musical arrays revealing first the constant traffic of information flowing between social strata; and second, what would be a common feature of Brazilian popular music until the s: During the first two centuries of colonization, the viola was, par excellence, the main accompanist instrument, and only in the second cacioneiro of the eighteenth century it cnacioneiro way in the urban scene to the young acoustic guitar, which for its sound 19 and simple rather than double strings proved to be more functional as an accompanying instrument.
In Spain and later in Europe, the acoustic guitar gained ground and quickly became the most widely used plucked string instrument. On the other hand, the violas in Portugal gradually became restricted to the world of popular culture, where they still remain.
In academia, some musicologists defend the idea that the viola was used as continuo 21 in the period we know as Brazilian Baroque. In the absence of the harpsichord as an caipirra instrument, the viola was used in the same way the teorba 22 was used in Europe for the same purpose.
Other musicologists refute this hypothesis due to the lack of primary sources documenting the usage.
The researcher Varoni Castrop. The viola here, as in southern Europe, is the preferred instrument, while the piano is a very rare piece of furniture, which is only found in affluent households.
Popular songs are accompanied by the viola, which has its origin both in Portugal and in the country itself. Clearly, our viola sertaneja remained in the hands of the people, as a true remnant of the old eighteenth-century Portuguese viola, the same that had accompanied the delightful modinhas by Domingos Caldas Barbosa; the authentic Lereno’s viola.
It coexists with the urban guitar, but took refuge in the backlands; it vioal musically Arcadianism, like many other linguistic Arcadianisms, that the people maintain alive with the unconscious power of their ingrained traditionalism.
These have always been accompanied by the viola. Nineteenth-century travelers reported the musicality of the tropeiros who, in their leisure time improvised verses to the sound of the viola. Gradually the viola became the voice of this people from the backlands of Southeastern and Central-Western Brazil. In the Northeast the viola established itself as an instrument of poet-improvisers, perpetuating caipirs Arab tradition of the troubadours.
It is often found with twelve strings, but always divided into five courses three pairs and two triplets. Poets-improvisers often use the dynamic viola.
As already mentioned, it is a model developed in Brazil by Del Vecchio, whose top has several holes covered by a screen ce hides natural amplifiers made of caipria cones, resulting in a metallic sound that vibrates well with the open sound of the Portuguese spoken in the Northeast. In Recife we still find the viola being played as it was played in the Renaissance, with a reed and in a way that is more melodic than harmonic, thus preserving the way it was used in the literate milieu, in a free style.
At this point, the text merits an explanation about the different ways the viola is played tin Northeast and Southeast Brazil: Thus, the presence of the Portuguese State in the Northeast led to some elitist ways of playing the instrument. In the Southeast, the viola in the hands of the bandeirantes and Mameluks lost its technical finesse, but gained a wider rhythmic approach. Proof of that is the number of rhythms found in what we know as country music.
Currently, violists have put together these two ways of playing, combining the refinement viloa the free style brought from Portugal with the rude exuberance of the sounds and rhythms native to Brazil. As the resolutions of some of the numerous Romanizations 25 were introduced in Brazil, many of the Catholic rites, which here were beginning to take shape, were banned from the cancloneiro churches, but resisted even away from the central religious authorities.
In the nineteenth century not only these rites but also instruments such as cancioneido, fiddles and later the requintas violas with high-pitched strings moved to the backwoods and rural areas. Subsequently, dances like the mazurka, polka and square dance, which cancioneigo becoming out-fashioned in urban ballrooms, found a place in rural areas, where they are still in vogue.
Gradually banned from the central regions of the cities, these cancionfiro of expression moved to the outskirts of those same cities, and as the power of local governments increased, they were taken to the rural areas, where they established themselves together with the instrument that had always accompanied them and which was also being gradually replaced by the acoustic guitar, i.