Cataphora and anaphora are the two main types of endophora–that is, reference to an item within the text itself. Anaphora cataphora, endophora. Cohesive ties – typology. Reading: Dušková, L. Studies in the English Language. Part 2. Praha: Karolinum, Chapter Anaphora and Cataphora. LG. Loreto Garrido. Updated 10 November Transcript. This is what Fabian said. That all men were created equally.
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In a narrower sense, anaphora is the use of an expression that depends specifically upon an antecedent expression and thus is contrasted with cataphorawhich is anahpora use of an expression that depends upon a postcedent expression. The anaphoric referring term is called an anaphor. For example, in the sentence Sally arrived, but nobody saw herthe pronoun her is an anaphor, referring back to the antecedent Sally.
In the sentence Before her arrival, nobody saw Sallythe pronoun her refers forward to the postcedent Sallyso her is now a cataphor and an anaphor in the broader, but not the narrower, sense. Usually, an anaphoric expression is cagaphora proform or some other kind of deictic contextually-dependent expression. Anaphora is an important concept for different reasons and on different levels: In a broad sense, it denotes the act of referring.
Any time a given expression e. In a second, narrower sense, the term anaphora denotes the act of referring backwards in a dialog or text, such as referring to the left when an anaphor points to its left toward its antecedent in languages that are written from left to right. In this narrow sense, anaphora stands in contrast to cataphorawhich sees the act of referring forward in a dialog or text, or pointing to the right in languages that are written from left to right: A proform is a cataphor when it points to its right toward its postcedent.
Both effects together are called either anaphora broad sense or less ambiguously, along with self-reference they comprise the category of endophora. Examples of anaphora in the narrow sense and cataphora are given next. Anaphors and cataphors anxphora in bold, and their antecedents and postcedents are underlined:.
A further distinction is drawn between endophoric and exophoric reference.
Exophoric reference occurs when an expression, an exophor, refers to something that is not directly present in the linguistic context, but is rather present in the situational context. Deictic proforms are stereotypical exophors, e. Exophors cannot be anaphors as they do not substantially refer within the dialog or text, though there is a question of what portions of a conversation or document are accessed by a listener or reader with regard to whether all references to which a term points within that language stream are noticed i.
A listener might, for example, realize through listening to other clauses and sentences that she is a Queen because of some of her attributes or actions mentioned. Homophoric reference occurs when a generic phrase obtains a specific meaning through knowledge of its context. For example, the referent of the phrase the Queen using an emphatic definite articlenot the less specific a Queenbut also not the more specific Queen Elizabeth must be determined by the context of the utterance, which would identify the identity of the queen in question.
Until further revealed by additional contextual words, gestures, images or other mediaa listener may not even know what monarchy or historical period is being discussed, and even after hearing her name is Elizabeth does not know, even if an English-UK Queen Elizabeth becomes indicated, if this queen means Queen Elizabeth I or Queen Elizabeth II and must await further clues in additional communications. Similarly, in discussing ‘The Mayor’ of a citythe Mayor’s identity must be understood broadly through the context which the speech references as general ‘object’ of understanding; is a particular human person meant, a current or future or past office-holder, the office in a strict legal sense, or the office in a general sense which includes activities a mayor might conduct, might even be expected to conduct, while they may not be explicitly defined for this office.
The term anaphor is used in a special way in the generative grammar tradition of Chomsky and his followers.
Anaphora and Cataphora by Loreto Garrido on Prezi
Catphora it denotes what would normally be called a reflexive or reciprocal pronoun, such as himself or each other in English, and analogous forms in other languages.
The use of the term anaphor in dataphora narrow sense is unique to generative grammar, and in particular, to the traditional binding theory. In this respect, anaphors reflexive and reciprocal pronouns behave very differently from, for instance, personal pronouns. In some cases, anaphora may refer not to its usual antecedent, but to its complement set.
In the following example a, the anaphoric pronoun they refers to the children who are eating the ice-cream. Contrastingly, example b has they seeming to refer to the children who are not eating ice-cream:. In its narrower definition, an anaphoric pronoun must refer to some noun phrase that has already been introduced into the discourse. In complement anaphora cases, however, the anaphor refers to something that is not yet present in the discourse, since the pronoun’s referent has not been formerly introduced, including the case of ‘everything but’ what has been introduced.
The set of ice-cream-eating-children in example cataphota is introduced into the discourse, but then the pronoun they refers to the set of non-ice-cream-eating-children, a set which has not been explicitly mentioned. Both semantic and pragmatics considerations attend this phenomenon, which following discourse representation theory since the early s, such as work by Kamp and Heim File Change Semantics,and generalized quantifier theorysuch as work by Barwise and Cooperwas studied anaphoora a series of psycholinguistic experiments in the early s by Moxey and Sanford and Sanford et al.
The various possible referents in complement anaphora are discussed by CorblinKibbleand Nouwen Cayaphora are many theories that attempt to prove how anaphors are related and trace back to their antecedents, with centering theory Grosz, Joshi, and Weinstein being one of them. Taking the computational theory of mind view of language, centering theory gives a computational analysis of underlying antecedents.
In the theory, there are different types of centers: A ranked list of discourse entities in an utterance. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Anaphora. Binding linguistics and Government and binding theory. The Case of The Others”. Retrieved 28 July Volume 20, Issue 1 Pp.
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Anaphora Resolution Mental models and the interpretation of anaphora. Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics. Routledge dictionary of language and linguistics.
Lectures on government and binding: Quantification et anaphore discursive: Complement anaphora and dynamic binding. Corpus-based and computational approaches to discourse anaphora. Complement anaphora and interpretation. Journal of Semantics, 20, 73— Psychological studies of quantifiers. Journal of Semantics 11, — Anaphora Resolution and Text Retrieval.
A Linguistic Analysis of Hypertexts. Corpus linguistics at work. Retrieved from ” https: Pragmatics Anahora Semiotics Syntactic relationships Tasks of natural language processing. Uses authors parameter Pages using web citations with no URL. Views Read Edit View history.