Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation FIRO® is a comprehensive and widely-used theory of interpersonal relations created by Will Schutz, Ph.D. Perceived dimensions of interpersonal relations, biograph- ical characteristics of the subjects. The four dimensions were compared to those from studies of. FIRO® is a comprehensive and widely-used theory of interpersonal relations in the book FIRO: A Three-Dimensional Theory of Interpersonal Behavior.
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This theory mainly explains the interpersonal interactions of a local group of people. Schutz developed a measuring instrument that contains six scales of nine-item questions, and this became version B for “Behavior”. These categories measure how much interaction a person wants in the areas of socializing, leadership and responsibilities, and more intimate personal relations.
FIRO-B was created, based on this theory, as a measurement instrument with scales that assess the behavioral aspects of the three dimensions. Scores are graded from 0—9 in scales of expressed and wanted behavior, which define how much a person expresses to others, and how much he wants from others.
Schutz believed that FIRO scores in themselves were not terminal, and can and do change, and did not encourage tnree-dimensional however, the four temperaments were eventually mapped to the scales of the scoring system, which led to the creation of a theory of five temperaments. Schutz himself discussed the impact of extreme behavior in the areas of inclusion, control, and openness as indicated by scores on the FIRO-B and the later Element-B.
For each area of interpersonal need the following three types of behavior would be evident: Deficient was defined as indicating that an individual was not trying to directly satisfy the need. Excessive was defined as indicating that an individual was constantly trying to satisfy the need. Ideal referred to satisfaction of the need. From this, he identified the following types:. The last row was “Pathological Interpersonal relations”which was divided into “too much” interperdonal “too little”, yielding: We thus end up with the six dimensions as follows:.
Putting them together, Schutz came up with fifteen “Descriptive Schema and appropriate terminology for each Interpersonal Need Area”: Leo Ryan, produced maps of the scores for each area, called “locator charts”, and assigned names for all of the score ranges in his Clinical Interpretation of The FIRO-B:.
However, to continue not to encourage typology, the names which were for clinical interpretation primarily are generally not used, and Element-B test results usually total the E, W, I, C and O scores individually. In the derivative “five temperament” system, the different scores are grouped into their corresponding temperaments, and considered inborn types. One intefpersonal difference is in the “high wanted” scores in the area of Control.
A distinction is made between men and women, with men being “dependent”, and women, rather than really being dependent, only being “tolerant” of control by others. This is attributed to “the stereotypical role of women in Western Culture”, where they were often dependent, and have simply learned to tolerate control from others.
William C. Schutz, FIRO, A Three-Dimensional Theory of Interpersonal Behavior – PhilPapers
This again, reflects FIRO’s belief that these scores reflect learned behavior. In five temperament theory, no such distinction between the sexes is recognized, and high wanted scores in Control are seen as an inborn dependency need in both sexes.
Another part of the theory is “compatibility theory”, which features the roles of originatorreciprocaland interchange. Originator compatibilityinvolves possible clashes between expressed and wanted behaviors.
Both persons will want to set the agenda, take responsibility, and direct and structure the actions of others; neither will feel comfortable taking direction. The result could be competition or even conflict. Reciprocal compatibility is from another example given from Control firk, where high eC with low wC interacts with the opposite: Interchange compatibility measures how much individuals share the same need strengths. They interpersobal be compatible because both will see Affection behaviors as the basis of the relationship, and they will engage each other around Affection needs.
During the s, Schutz revised and expanded FIRO theory and developed additional instruments Schutzfor measuring the new aspects of onterpersonal theory, including Element B: Work Relations; Element C: Close Relations; Element P: Parental Relationships; and Element O: Sincethese instruments intereprsonal been known collectively as Elements of Awareness.
Element B differs in expanding the definitions of Inclusion, Control, and Affection renamed “Openness”into an additional six scores to measure how much a person wants to include, control, and be close to others, and how much other people include, control, and like to be close to the client.
Each of the three areas is split into “Do” initiating interaction with others and “Get” the level received from bshavior. Differences between See and Want scores indicate levels of dissatisfaction. Behavkor who developed the second one. In a survey of seventy-five of the most widely used training instruments, the FIRO-B was found to be the most generally usable instrument in training. Now the two are offered together by CPP. Olmstead, and also Allen L. Hammer with Eugene R. Positive correlations associated with I, N, F and P.
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FIRO Theory a brief intro