Geographic Distributions and Origins of Human Head Lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) Based on Mitochondrial Data. Jessica E. Light, Julie M. Allen*, Lauren. ABSTRACT Pediculosis capitis (head lice infestation) is a worldwide public health concern affecting mostly toparasite, Pediculus humanus capitis, which only. Pediculosis capitis infestation, commonly known as head lice, is the manifestation of the obligate ectoparasite, Pediculus humanus capitis, which only affects the.
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The prevalence of pediculosis capitis was There were significant differences in the prevalence between girls Longer hair length, lack of bathing facilities, low frequency of hair-washing and bathing, and sharing of articles e.
It is an extremely contagious condition and most common among young children aged 3 to 12 years. It is a worldwide community health problem that affects children in both developed and developing countries [1—3].
Primary-school children aged 6—12 years are most at risk, although adults and children of other ages who have direct or yumanus contact with primary-school children are also susceptible . The pattern and prevalence of pediculosis capitis is dependent on many sociodemographic and economic factors such as overcrowding, hair characteristics and poor hygiene [5,6].
Lice infestation may lead to psychological distress and may disrupt learning performance of the children because of the social stigma associated with it [2,3,7,8]. In Jordan, a few studies have been done among schoolchildren. Another conducted in northern Jordan reported a prevalence of However, there are no published data available about the prevalence of head lice in Mafraq governorate kurnal northern Jordan. Therefore this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and distribution of Pediculosis humanus capitis among primary-school children in Mafraq governorate, northern Jordan, and to identify pedculus factors epdiculus the kurnal.
This study was carried out in Mafraq governorate from December to February It is the second largest governorate in the country, but has the second lowest population density.
Permission to conduct the study was obtained from the Directorate of Education of the Mafraq Governorate Ministry of Education. This was a school-based analytical cross-sectional study carried out from December to February Students were selected from those enrolled in primary schools in Mafraq governorate.
The sample size was estimated by using the following formula: Based on this formula, the minimum sample size needed was students; however, the sample size was increased to include all eligible students in the selected schools so as to increase the power and validity of the study. A total of 8 schools were randomly selected comprising eligible students in Grades 1 to 6. Four schools from which students were enrolled were located in urban areas Mafraq city and 4 schools from which children were enrolled were located in rural areas Bedouin community of the Mafraq Governorate.
Data were collected by 5 nursing inspectors who had a bachelor degree in nursing and were trained to do hair examinations. However we obtained approval from parents, a response rate of A suitable room was chosen in every selected school to conduct the hair examination.
The Importance of Hair and Scalp Hygiene for Pediculus Humanus Capitis Epidemic Prevention – Neliti
A detailed questionnaire was completed by the children with the help of the nurses and data on the following variables were recorded: The scalp was examined for 3—5 minutes with the capotis eye, sometimes with the use of a hand lens and a fine-toothed comb. Data entry and analysis were conducted using SPSS, version 16 software. The chi-squared test was used compare differences in proportions for the variables included.
Of the children included in the study, were boys and girls. The overall prevalence of pediculosis capitis among the schoolchildren was The prevalence of infestation was significantly higher among girls The highest percentage of pediculosis infestation was among children with a past history of infestation The prevalence of head lice infestation was significantly higher Moreover, the prevalence of the infestation was significantly associated with the frequency of both hair washing In addition, the frequency of lice infestation was significantly higher among children who shared articles such as combs, scarves and towels among the family The prevalence of infestation with Pediculus humanus capitis in our study was This figure is higher than previously reported in other areas in Jordan Amman, North Jordan There may be a number of likely explanations for this difference, including lifestyle and environmental issues because water is scarce in the remote areas of the Mafraq governorate in comparison to other rural areas in Jordan, and some of the children come from these remote areas.
Furthermore, the surveys were conducted around 10 years before our pdiculus, during different seasons and in different governorates with different socioeconomic status and lifestyles. Mafraq Governorate still includes a Pediulus population with a nomadic lifestyle who are only semi-settled.
Furthermore, there has been a reported increase in worldwide pediculosis prevalence since . Our figure is similar to some studies in different parts of the world It is lower than the rates observed in other countries, However, it is higher than that detected in other Middle Eastern countries, for example Egypt 5.
In Jordan, as in other Arab and Islamic countries, the most serious social consequence facing affected schoolchildren is social stigma [1,2]. The prevalence of lice infestation in our study was significantly higher among girls than boys, which concurs with the humsnus of other studies done in Jordan , the region [1,2] and worldwide [11,19].
Humanu higher infestation rate among girls can be explained by the difference in hair length, which we showed to be significantly associated with infestation, longer hair increasing the likelihood of infestation. Girls generally have longer hair than boys and also exhibit different behaviour to boys: Another important cultural factor is that a very high percentage of the girls in Mafraq Governorate wore a head cover because of their Islamic tradition.
While covering the head might reduce the transmission of head lice by reducing hair contact between girls, at the same time covering the head may increase the prevalence of infestation of head lice by raising the scalp temperature and creating greater humidity [1,2].
Furthermore, many Jordanian girls cover their head only outside their home, and therefore transmission can still occur inside the home with their siblings and family members. Moreover, girls pedicukus exchange their head scarf with each other which may increase the chances of cross-infestation. The prevalence of lice infestation was very high among those children with long hair as it is more difficult to comb and keep clean it in comparison with short hair.
In addition, school policies of enforcement of short hair-cuts among boys are likely to reduce transmission of the parasite. In agreement with international trends, children aged 6—8 years were the most frequently affected with head lice [1,2,4,7]. This can be explained by behavioural factors whereby children at this age have more direct physical contact with each other.
Furthermore, the degree of close contact with friends and family at this age might affect the infestation rate and this contact may decrease as children jhrnal older. Factors that may explain the higher prevalence in the rural areas of the Mafraq Governorate might be attributed to poor personal hygiene among family members because of scarcity of water juenal and the semi-nomadic lifestyle, relative difficulty in accessing health services for treatment, and lack of knowledge of basic skin care.
Some researchers maintain that lice infestation is found in all socioeconomic classes [11,19], while others have reported that lice infestation is more common in rural areas among lower socioeconomic classes [21,22].
It has been reported in the literature that extreme poverty and overcrowded dwellings hymanus closely related to poor hygiene practices and less concern about head lice infestation .
This hurnal be because children from larger families with less income may not be able to pay attention to hair care and have a higher risk of the parasite being transmitted by their siblings .
Our findings are more in agreement with Mumcuoglu and Miller, who found a strong correlation between lice infestation and the presence of bathing facilities in the home as well as the frequency of hair washing. This reinforces the importance of hair care washing and brushing and the frequency of hygiene practices in the prevention of lice infestation. Our findings showed that using shared articles including clothing hats, scarves, veilshair care items and accessories combs, hair brushes, head ribbons and sleep items pillows and bed linen increased the prevalence of head lice; this is in agreement jurnall and Feldmeier .
Our study has some limitations.
The schoolchildren that answered the questionnaires were enrolled in Grades 1 to 6: Some incidental education was done by the nurses after examination for the infested students.
This is the first community-based study of the prevalence of pediculosis in Mafraq Governorate, which shows a high prevalence of lice infestation which can be explained by the above-mentioned factors. Although educational campaigns by community health nurses and other health-care workers and teachers are expected to be helpful for head lice control, there remains the challenge of scarcity of resources and providers to carry out hair inspections and conduct awareness programmes within the Ministry of Health.
Collaboration with the Ministry of Education as well as municipalities to share resources and implement these programmes to increase awareness and educate teachers, parents and the children themselves on the importance of good standards of personal hygiene could significantly reduce the prevalence of pediculosis in this area.
We would like to thank the nurses who helped in the examination and education of the children.
The Importance of Hair and Scalp Hygiene for Pediculus Humanus Capitis Epidemic Prevention
Sincere thanks also go the Jurnsl of Education of the Mafraq Governorate who gave permission to conduct this study. Finally, we thank all school principals and the parents, teachers and students of the schools that participated in this study for their cooperation. Volume 24, number 10, October Pan American Journal of Public Health.
Results Of the children included in the study, were boys and girls.
Pediculosis Corporis – StatPearls – NCBI Bookshelf
Discussion The prevalence of infestation with Pediculus humanus capitis in our study was Acknowledgments We would like to thank the nurses who helped in the examination and education of the children. References Motovali-Emami M et al.
Epidemiological aspects of pediculosis capitis and treatment evaluation in primary school children in Iran. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, Head lice infestation in school children of a low socio-economic area of Tabriz City, Iran. African Journal of Biotechnology, ,7 Geneva, World Health Organization, pediculua Head louse developing a practical approach.
Pediculosis capitis infestation according to social factors in Hamedan, Iran. Bailey AM, Prociv P.