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Leary, M. R. Sociometer theory and the pursuit of relational value: Getting to the root of self-esteem. European Review of Social Psychology, Sociometer theory is a theory put forward by Mark Leary in , proposing that humans have evolved a form of psychological meter, or gauge. Sociometer theory proposes that self-esteem is a psychological gauge of the . in which people appear to seek to enhance their self-esteem (Leary et al., ).

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Sociometer Theory | Psychology Concepts

Social Anxiety, Embarrassment, Hurt Feelings I sociometfr been interested in how people react in situations in which they are concerned that others will not accept them as much as they desire.

This page was last edited on 18 Septemberat Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology14, Eye gaze as relational evaluation: Basic and Applied Social Psychology23, In the study, two groups were assigned.

Email Please log in from an authenticated institution or log into your member profile to access the email feature. Social Representation Theory Chapter Determinants of belonging Many cues and circumstances can instil a sense of belonging.

Group Processes and Intergroup Relations1, From the perspective of sociomfter sociometer hypothesis, rejection, according to Pyszczynski, Greenberg, and Solomonshould elicit behaviors that cultivate rather than compromise relationships. These responses are initially adaptive, encouraging behaviors that redress the potential implications of these social threats e.

The sociometer hypothesis is consistent with belonginess theory Baumeister and Leary Simon Moss Overview According to the sociometer hypothesis, when individuals feel rejected-or anticipate they might be excluded in the future-they experience a specific profile of feelings, manifested as a decline in self esteem e. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology58, leqry Overview Research Publications Teaching Files Contact At the most general level, my interests are in social and personality psychology, centering around topics in interpersonal motivation and emotion.


These authors argued that a plethora of observations, such as the finding that participants who contemplate their mortality strive more vigorously to improve their self esteem, cannot be ascribed to the sociometer hypothesis.

Comment on Pyszczynski et al. First, in their study, they discovered the self esteem of participants was especially likely to drop after they imagined themselves performing behaviors in which they felt they could be excluded or rejected by someone else-such as cheating on an exam, yelling at someone, or causing a traffic accident.

Depression, stress, and immunological activation: The reproductive success of women, however, is less dependent upon whether the husband dedicates time and effort to rearing her children. The role of cytokines in depressive disorders. thwory

Sociometer Theory

Psychological Inquiry8, The evolution of social attractiveness and its role in shame, humiliation, guilt, and therapy.

A low self esteem, therefore, elicits behaviors that are intended to preserve relationships and preclude or accommodate rejection. For example, to manipulate rejection, some individuals wrote about a time in which they were rejected.

When the social self is threatened: Self-Categorization Theory Chapter Attachment Theory Chapter Shackelford uncovered results that accord with these propositions. More recently, I have become interested in the negative effects of self-reflection and in hypo-egoic states that minimize these negative effects. Individuals with zociometer low self esteem are more likely to experience dejection, engage in substance abuse, exhibit eating disorders, and demonstrate many other problems.


Controversies Pyszczynski, Greenberg, and Solomon challenged the utility of the sociometer hypothesis, arguing this perspective does not explain the mounting evidence that favors an alternative perspective: For example, we have been studying egoic overreactions to inconsequential evenhts, self-compassion, mindfulness, and processes involved in hypo-egoic self-regulation. The function of self-esteem in terror management theory and sociometer theory: According to Leary, there are five main groups associated with relational value that are classified as those affording the greatest impact on an individual.

Self-Presentation, Self-esteem, and Identity Because people’s outcomes in life depend heavily on how others perceive and evaluate them, they are motivated to convey certain ldary of themselves to others and to refrain from conveying other, undesired impressions.

The sociometer perspective provides a framework for understanding the extensive literature on self-esteem, as well as the link between self-esteem and emotional and behavioral problems. A great deal of human behavior is, in part, determined or constrained by people’s concerns with others’ impressions and evaluations of them.